Monday, March 21, 2016
New ultra-sensitive test for cancer, HIV developed

A new ultra-sensitive test designed to detect diseases including HIV and cancer may prove 10,000 times more effective than current times diagnostic tools, Stanford scientists say.
When a disease whether it is a cancer or a virus like HIV – begins growing in the human body, the immune system responds by producing antibodies. Fishing these antibodies or related biomarkers out of the blood is one way that scientists infer the presence of a disease. This involves designing a molecule that the biomarker will bind to, and which is adorned with an identifying “flag”. Through a series of specialised chemical reactions, known as an immunoassay, researchers can isolate that flag, and the biomarker bound to it, to provide a proxy measurement of the disease.
The new technique, developed in the lab of Carolyn Bertozzi, a professor of chemistry at Stanford University in US, augments this standard procedure with powerful DNA screening technology. The chemists have replaced the standard flag with a short strand of DNA, which can then be teased out of the sample using DNA isolation technologies that are far more sensitive than those possible for traditional antibody detections. “This is spiritually related to a basic science tool we were developing to detect protein modifications, but we realised that the core principles were pretty straightforward and that the approach might be better served as a diagnostic tool,” said Peter Robinson, a graduate student in Bertozzi’s group.
The researchers tested their technique, with its signature DNA flag, against four commercially available, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved tests for a biomarker for thyroid cancer. It outperformed the sensitivity of all of them, by at least 800 times, and up to 10,000 times, researchers said. By detecting the biomarkers of disease at lower concentrations, physicians could theoretically catch diseases far earlier in their progression.
“The thyroid cancer test has historically been a fairly challenging immunoassay, because it produces a lot of false positives and false negatives, so it was not clear if our test would have an advantage,” Robinson said. A clinical trial underway in collaboration with the Alameda County Public Health Laboratory will help evaluate the technique as a screening tool for HIV, researchers said. Early detection and treatment of the virus can help ensure that its effects on the patient are minimised and reduce the chance that it is transmitted to others.
“In contrast to many new diagnostic techniques, this test is performed on pre-existing machines that most clinical labs are already familiar with,” said Cheng-ting Tsai, a graduate student in Bertozzi’s group. The research was published in the journal ACS Central Science.

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Sunday, March 20, 2016
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NASA scientists associated with interplanetary space probe New Horizons have revealed the former "astronomer's planet" and its "intriguing system of small moons" in a comprehensive set of papers describing results from last summer's Pluto system flyby.
"These five detailed papers completely transform our view of Pluto -- revealing the former 'astronomer's planet' to be a real world with diverse and active geology, exotic surface chemistry, a complex atmosphere, puzzling interaction with the Sun and an intriguing system of small moons," said New Horizons principal investigator Alan Stern.
After a 9.5-year, three-billion-mile journey -- launching faster and traveling farther than any spacecraft to reach its primary target -- New Horizons zipped by Pluto on July 14, 2015.
New Horizons' seven science instruments collected about 50 gigabits of data on the spacecraft's digital recorders, most of it coming over nine busy days surrounding the encounter, NASA said in a statement.
The first close-up pictures revealed a large heart-shaped feature carved into Pluto's surface, telling scientists that this "new" type of planetary world -- the largest, brightest and first-explored in the mysterious, distant "third zone" of our solar system known as the Kuiper Belt -- would be even more interesting and puzzling than models predicted.
"Observing Pluto and Charon up close has caused us to completely reassess thinking on what sort of geological activity can be sustained on isolated planetary bodies in this distant region of the solar system, worlds that formerly had been thought to be relics little changed since the Kuiper Belt's formation," said Jeff Moore, lead author of the geology paper.
Scientists studying Pluto's composition say the diversity of its landscape stems from eons of interaction between highly volatile and mobile methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide ices with inert and sturdy water ice.
"We see variations in the distribution of Pluto's volatile ices that point to fascinating cycles of evaporation and condensation," said Will Grundy of the Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona, lead author of the composition paper.
"These cycles are a lot richer than those on Earth, where there's really only one material that condenses and evaporates -- water. On Pluto, there are at least three materials, and while they interact in ways we don't yet fully understand, we definitely see their effects all across Pluto's surface."
Above the surface, scientists discovered Pluto's atmosphere contains layered hazes, and is both cooler and more compact than expected. This affects how Pluto's upper atmosphere is lost to space, and how it interacts with the stream of charged particles from the Sun known as the solar wind.
Scientists also are analysing the first close-up images of Pluto's small moons - Styx, Nix, Kerberos and Hydra.
They have found evidence that some of the moons resulted from mergers of even smaller bodies, and that their surface ages date back at least four billion years.
About half of New Horizons' flyby data has now been transmitted home -- from distances where radio signals at light speed need nearly five hours to reach Earth - with all of it expected back by the end of 2016.
Source : zeenews

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Now, Let´s play basketball game in Facebook Messenger!

The Most popular social networking site Facebook has been adding new features to keep facebook users happy.
Recently, a report stated that facebook has introduced a secret basketball mini-game into its Messenger service. The game can be unlocked by sending a basketball emoji to a friend or group in the latest version of the Messenger app and then simply clicking on it. To shoot, you need to slide your finger or thumb on the screen. A point is scored for every consecutive basket that you net and the scores are shared in your chat with a friend or group.
The target begins to move after a score of 10. It moves faster after 20 and keeps you hooked on the game for a considerable time.
This is not the first time the social networking site has dropped games into its Messenger service. But this time around it seems more compelling than the chess game that arrived last month.
#facebook_basketball #how_to_play_basketball_in_facebook #facebook_Games

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Tuesday, March 15, 2016
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keyboard shortcuts can greatly increase your productivity, reduce repetitive strain, and help keep you focused. For eg, to copy text, you can highlight text and press the Ctrl + C shortcut. The shortcut is faster than moving your hands from the keyboard, highlighting with the mouse, choosing copy from the file menu, and then returning to the keyboard.

Below are the top 10 keyboard shortcuts we recommend everyone memorize and use.

Ctrl + C or Ctrl + Insert and Ctrl + X

Both Ctrl + C and Ctrl + Insert will copythe highlighted text or selected item. If you want to cut instead of copy pressCtrl + X.

Ctrl + V or Shift + Insert

Both the Ctrl + V and Shift + Insert willpaste the text or object that's in theclipboard.

Use the above text input fields to highlight the "Cut or copy this text" text and press either Ctrl + C to copy or Ctrl + X to Cut the text. Once Cut Move to the next field and press Ctrl + V or Shift + Insert to paste the text.

Ctrl + Z and Ctrl + Y

Pressing Ctrl + Z will Undo any change. For example, if you cut text, pressing this will undo it. These shortcuts can also be pressed multiple times to undo or redo multiple changes. Pressing Ctrl + Y would redo the undo.

Use the above text input field to highlight some or all of the text and then press Ctrl + X to cut the text. Once the text has disappeared press the Ctrl + Z to undo the cut.

Tip: If you did the first example as well (cut and paste text) if you continue to press Ctrl + Z it is also going to undo that change.

Ctrl + F

Pressing Ctrl + F opens the Find in any program. Ctrl + F includes your Internetbrowser to find text on the current page. Press Ctrl + F now to open the Find in your browser and search for "shortcut" to find each time shortcut is mentioned on this page.

Alt + Tab or Ctrl + Tab

Pressing Alt + Tab switches between open programs moving forward. For example, if you have your browser window open and other programs running in the background press and hold Alt and then press tab to cycle through each open program.

Tip: Press Ctrl + Tab to switch betweentabs in a program. For example, if you have multiple tabs open in your browser now press Ctrl + Tab to switch between open tabs.

Tip: Adding the Shift key to Alt + Tab or Ctrl + Tab moves backward. For example, if you are pressing Alt + Tab and pass the program you want to use, press Alt + Shift + Tab to move back to that program.

Tip: Windows Vista and 7 users can also press the Windows Key + Tab to switch through open programs in a full screenshot of the window.

Ctrl + Back space and Ctrl + Left or Right arrow

Pressing Ctrl + Backspace will delete a full word at a time instead of a single character.

Holding down the Ctrl key while pressing the left or right arrow will move the cursor one word at a time instead of one character at a time. If you want to highlight one word at a time, hold downCtrl + Shift and then press the left or right arrow key to move one word at a time in that direction while highlighting each word.

Ctrl + S

While working on a document or other file in almost every program, pressingCtrl + S saves that file. Use this shortcut key frequently if you're working on anything important in case an error happens, you lose power, or other problem that causes you to lose any work since the last save.

Ctrl + Home or Ctrl + End

Ctrl + Home will move the cursor to the beginning of the document, and Ctrl + End will move the cursor to the end of a document. These shortcuts work with most documents, as well as web pages.

Ctrl + P

Open a print preview of the current page or document being viewed. For example, press Ctrl + P now to view a print preview of this page.

Page Up, Spacebar, and Page Down

Pressing either the page up or page down key will move that page one page at a time in that direction. When browsing the Internet, pressing thespacebar also moves the page down one page at a time.

Tip: If you are using the spacebar to go down one page at a time, press the Shift key and spacebar to go up one page at a time.

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Monday, March 14, 2016
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The solubility of a gas depends on nature of gas, Nature of solvent, Temprature and pressure. The effect of equlibrium pressure of a gas on its solubility is studied by henry.
Statement :-
At a particular temperature, the solubility of a gas in a particular solvent is directly proportional to the equilibrium pressure present above the surface of solvent
I.e M direct proposnal to P
M = KhP ………………………eq 1
where M= solublity of gas
P = equilibrium pressure
Kh= Henry constant

Henry`s law can also be expressed in the forms of the Distribution Law.
     For gas at equilibrium with liquid the ratio of concentration of gas in gaseous phase to concentration of gas in liquid phase remains constant at a particular temperature.

Limitation of Henry`s Law
    It is applicable only if the following condition are satisfied.
1. the pressure should be low and temprature should be high I.e the gas behave like ideal gas.
2. The dissolved gas nither react with solvent not dissociate or associate with the solvent.

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Desolve oxygen is an essential requirement of aquatic life I.e plant and animal population in any water body. Decrease in this dissolve oxygen value is an index of population mainly due to organic mattres. The amount of oxygen needed by a bacteria for biological oxidation in any unite volume of water is known as Biological oxygen demand. Biological oxygen demand is used as a measure of degree of water pollution and waste level. more the demand, more is the degree of pollution. Thermal pollution of water increase the biological oxygen demand which speed up the metabolism of aquatic living organisms.

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Sunday, March 13, 2016
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Google's AlphaGo program was playing against Lee Se-dol in Seoul, in South Korea.Mr Lee had been confident he would win before the competition started.The Chinese board game is considered to be a much more complex challenge for a computer than chess."AlphaGo played consistently from beginning to the end while Lee, as he is only human, showed some mental vulnerability," one of Lee's former coaches, Kwon Kap-Yong, told the AFP news agency.
Mr Lee is considered a champion Go player, having won numerous professional tournaments in a long, successful career.
Go is a game of two players who take turns putting black or white stones on a 19-by-19 grid. Players win by surrounding their opponents pieces with their own.
In the first game of the series, AlphaGo triumphed by a very narrow margin - Mr Lee had led for most of the match, but AlphaGo managed to build up a strong lead in its closing stages.
After losing the second match to Deep Mind, Lee Se-dol said he was "speechless" adding that the AlphaGo machine played a "nearly perfect game".
The two experts who provided commentary for the YouTube stream of for the third game said that it had been a complicated match to follow.
They said that Lee Se-dol had brought his "top game" but that AlphaGo had won "in great style".
The AlphaGo system was developed by British computer company DeepMind which was bought by Google in 2014.
It has built up its expertise by studying older games and teasing out patterns of play. And, according to DeepMind chief executive Demis Hassabis, it has also spent a lot of time just playing the game.
"It played itself, different versions of itself, millions and millions of times and each time got incrementally slightly better - it learns from its mistakes," he told the BBC before the matches started.
This virtuous circle of constant improvement meant the super computer went into the five-match series stronger than when it beat the European champion late last year.

What does this mean for artificial intelligence? Dr Noel Sharkey, AI expert

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has flirted with games since its beginnings, because only smart humans excel. Unlike the real world, a closed system of fixed rules suits computing.
Despite critical voices, Arthur Samuel's draughts playing program was an incredible achievement in 1959. Like AlpahGo it learned by playing itself repeatedly only many orders of magnitude slower.
Then the goal posts moved. The critics said chess was beyond computing's capability because it needed human intuition and creativity. But then when good amateur challengers had to eat their words in the 1970s, the goal post shifted again.
Critics claimed a horizon where computers might beat some professionals but certainly not grand masters. So when IBM's Deep Blue supercomputer beat world champion Garry Kasparov in 1997, the world was astonished. But Deep Blue was not the human-like intelligence that the founding fathers of AI had hoped for. It won by brute force by searching through millions of moves in seconds. Humans have limited memory and need brilliant pattern perception and creative strategies to win.
So the critics turned to Go as the impossible. Even with today's vast computer memories and incredibly fast processors (which have doubled more than eight times since Deep Blue), the ancient game will not yield to brute force. The size of the search required for Go is larger than chess by more than the number of atoms in the universe. It is the holy grail of AI gaming.
When Facebook announced earlier this year that their program had beaten a strong Go amateur, jaws dropped in the AI community - and fell to the floor that same day when Google's Deep Mind genius team announced their AlphaGo beat the European champion 5-0.
To beat one of the world's top players, Deep Mind used a mixture of clever strategies to make the search much smaller. They trained their machine on 30 million expert moves to start with, and then the learning machine played against itself millions of times. It worked - the holy grail is in the bag and the goal posts can shift no further.
Does this mean AI is now smarter than us and will kill us mere humans? Certainly not. AlphaGo doesn't care if it wins or loses. It doesn't even care if it plays and it certainly couldn't make you a cup of tea after the game. Does it mean that AI will soon take your job? Possibly you should be more worried about that.
Go is thought to date back to several thousand years ago in China.
Using black-and-white stones on a grid, players gain the upper hand by surrounding their opponents pieces with their own.
The rules are simpler than those of chess, but a player typically has a choice of 200 moves, compared with about 20 in chess - there are more possible positions in Go than atoms in the universe, according to DeepMind's team.
It can be very difficult to determine who is winning, and many of the top human players rely on instinct.
Source : BBC Tech news

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Wednesday, March 2, 2016
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Emulsions are colloid system in which both disperse phase and dispersion medium are liquid. These are 2 types

1. oil in water type emulsion (o/w)
In this emulsion, oil acts as disperse and phase and water acts as dispersion medium for eg. milk

2. Water in oil type emulsion (W/o)
In this emulsion water acts as disperse phase and oil acts as dispersion medium eg. Curd

Preparation of Emulsion :-
Emulsion can be prepared by shaking two liquid mixture or by passing the liquid mixture through homogenize.
     emulsion prepared by mixing two liquids are generally unstable due to the presence of interfacial tension. so to increase the stability certain stabilizing agents are added In emulsion the stabilizing agents are called emulsitying agent.
Demulsification :-
The phenomenon of breaking of emulsion into its constituent particle is called demulsification.

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Saturday, October 3, 2015
Why do women live longer than man?

All across the world, women enjoy longer lifespans. David Robson investigates the reasons why, and whether men can do anything about it. 

As soon as I was born, I was already destined to die earlier than half the babies in my maternity ward – a curse that I can do little to avoid. The reason? My sex. Simply due to the fact that I am male, I can be expected to die around three years earlier than a woman born on the same day.
What is it about being a man that means I am likely to die younger than the women around me? And is it possible for me to break the curse of my gender? Although this puzzling divide has been known for decades, it is only recently that we have started coming close to some answers. One early idea was that men work themselves into an early grave. Whether working in a mine or ploughing the land, they put extra stress on their bodies and amassed injuries that caught up with them later in life. Yet if that were the case, you might expect the gap to be closing, as both men and women converge on the same, sedentary jobs.
In fact, the difference in lifespan has remained stable even throughout monumental shifts in society. Consider Sweden, which offers the most reliable historic records. In 1800, life expectancy at birth was 33 years for women and 31 years for men; today it is 83.5 years and 79.5 years, respectively. In both cases, women live about 5% longer than men. As one recent article put it: “This remarkably consistent survival advantage of women compared with men in early life, in late life, and in total life is seen in every country in every year for which reliable birth and death records exist. There may be no more robust pattern in human biology.”Nor has it been easy to prove that men are more abusive of their bodies. Factors such as smoking, drinking, and overeating may partly explain why size of the gender gap varies so widely between countries. Russian men are likely to die 13 years earlier Russian women, for instance, partly because they drink and smoke more heavily. But the fact is that female chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons also consistently outlive the males of the group, and you do not see apes – male or female – with cigarettes hanging out of their mouths and beer glasses in their hands. Instead, it would seem like the answer lies in our evolution. “Of course, social and lifestyle factors do have a bearing, but there does appear to be something deeper engrained in our biology,” says Tom Kirkwood, who studies the biological basis for ageing at Newcastle University in the UK.

There are many potential mechanisms – starting with the bundles of DNA known as chromosomes within each cell. Chromosomes come in pairs, and whereas women have two X chromosomes, men have an X and a Y chromosome. That difference may subtly alter the way that cells age. Having two X chromosomes, women keep double copies of every gene, meaning they have a spare if one is faulty. Men don’t have that back-up. The result is that more cells may begin to malfunction with time, putting men at greater risk of disease. Among the other alternatives is the “jogging female heart” hypothesis – the idea that a woman’s heart rate increases during the second half of the menstrual cycle, offering the same benefits as moderate exercise. The result is delayed risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Or it could also be a simple matter of size. Taller people have more cells in their bodies, meaning they are more likely to develop harmful mutations; bigger bodies also burn more energy, which could add to wear and tear within the tissues themselves. Since men tend to be taller than women, they should therefore face more long-term damage

But perhaps the true reason lies in the testosterone that drives most other male characteristics, from deeper voices and hairier chests to balding crowns. Evidence comes from an unexpected place: the Imperial Court of the Chosun Dynasty in Korea. Korean scientist Han-Nam Park recently analysed the detailed records of court life. from the 19th Century, including information about 81 eunuchs whose testicles had been removed before puberty. His analyses revealed that the eunuchs lived for around 70 years – compared to an average of just 50 years among the other men in the court. Overall, they were 130 times more likely to celebrate their hundredth birthday than the average man living in Korea at the time. Even the kings – who were the most pampered people in the palace – did not come close. Although not all studies of other types of eunuch have shown such pronounced differences, overall it seems that people (and animals) without testicles do live longer.
The exact reasons are elusive, but David Gem at University College London speculates that the damage may be done by the end of puberty. For speculative evidence, he points to the sad cases of mental health patients, institutionalised in the USA in the early 20th Century. A few were forcibly castrated as part of their “treatment”. Like the Korean eunuchs, they too lived for longer than the average inmate – but only if they had been sterilised before the age of 15. Testosterone might make our bodies stronger in the short-term, but the same changes also leave us open to heart disease, infections, and cancer later in life. “For example, testosterone might increase seminal fluid production but promote prostate cancer; or it might alter cardiovascular function in a way that improves performance early in life but leads to hypertension and atherosclerosis later,” says Gem.
Not only do women escape the risks of testosterone – they may also benefit from their own “elixir of youth” that helps heal some of the ravages of time. The female sex home oestrogen is an “antioxidant”, meaning that it mops up poisonous chemicals that cause cells stress. In animal experiments, females lacking oestrogen tend not to live so long as those who have not been operated on – the exact opposite of the male eunuch’s fate. “If you remove a rodents’ ovaries, then the cells don’t repair against molecular damage quite as well,” says Kirkwood. Kirkwood and Gem both think of this as a kind of evolutionary pay-off that gave both men and women the best chances of passing on their genes. During mating, women would be more likely to go for alpha males, pumped up on testosterone. But once the children are born, the men are more disposable, says Kirkwood. “The welfare of offspring is intimately connected with welfare of the maternal body. The bottom line is that it matters more for the children that the mother’s body should be in good shape, rather than the father’s.” That’s cold comfort for men today. As it is, the scientists admit that we need to keep on looking for a definitive answer. “We really have to retain an open mind as to how much the difference can be explained by hormonal differences and other factors,” says Kirkwood. But the hope is that eventually, the knowledge may provide some hints to help us all live a little longer.

News source:BBC news: David Robson is BBC Future’s feature writer.
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Friday, October 2, 2015
Facebook introduces profile videos in mobile update

Facebook has announced a profile video feature as part of a set of new, mobile-friendly updates.
It means you'll be able to film a short, looping video - essentially a GIF - that will play for anyone who goes on your profile.
The feature is only being tested in the UK at the moment, so it could be a while before your feed looks like a wall at Hogwarts.
Updates have also been announced for how you change your profile picture.

Kenneth Williams looks like he'll probably be checking his Facebook despite being in "vacation mode"

Pride filter (which covered profile picture with a rainbow affect), users will soon be able to set a profile picture that reverts back to a previous one at a specified time.
It basically means you'll be able to set a profile picture which backs a particular cause or an out of office-style picture on your birthday or while you're on holiday.
The featured photos section is optional so you won't find pictures of you looking worse for wear on your 18th popping up for a future employer to see

A third, potentially less exciting, update sees the introduction of easier control over what people see on your page with a customisable space at the top of your profile.
You'll be able to write a Twitter-style bio, choose certain details describing your work and education to appear at the top of your profile and pick up to five featured photos to go at the top of your profile.
The area will be visible to anyone who visits your profile, but you can control what, if any, information appears there.
The announcement follows Facebook explaining that a message some users were seeing that suggests the site was about introduce a subscription fee was a hoax.
A post on the official Facebook account said: "While there may be water on Mars, don't believe everything you read on the internet today.
"Facebook is free and it always will be. And the thing about copying and pasting a legal notice is just a hoax. Stay safe out there Earthlings!"
#News from bbc news
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