Friday, June 27, 2014
no image

Update to Windows 8.1

Microsoft has released Windows 8.1, which is a free upgrade for anyone running Windows 8. This update addresses many of the problems users have had with Windows 8 and also adds a Start button. Visit Microsoft's Windows 8.1 page for the update. 

Customize your tiles

Make the most of your Windows Start screen tiles by adjusting the sizes, where they are located, and what is listed.
  • Move any tile by clicking and dragging the tile. While moving a tile, if you need a larger view of the Start screen move the tile towards the top or bottom of the screen to zoom out.
  • Use your mouse wheel to scroll left-to-right through your tiles.
  • Any Desktop shortcut or program can be pinned to the Start screen by right-clicking the icon and choosing Pin to Start.
  • In the bottom right-hand corner of the start screen is a magnifying glass with tiles, click this icon to get a zoomed out view of your Start screen. In this view, if you right-click on a group of tiles you'll be given the option to name group, which can be useful if you have a group of related tiles (e.g. games). In this view, you can also click and drag a group to organize your tile groups.
  • Create a new speed bump between tile groups by moving a tile to a speed bump.
  • Resize any User tile or Live tile by right-clicking the tile and choosing resize.
  • If there is a tile you want on your Taskbar, right-click the tile and choose Pin to taskbar.
  • Show admin applications on the Start screen by clicking Settings in Charms, click Settings, and change the Show administrative tools from No to Yes.
  • In Internet Explorer 10, you can also pin any of your favorite web pages to your Start Screen.

Windows 8 keyboard shortcuts

Knowing at least some of the Windows 8 keyboard shortcuts helps make your Windows 8 experience much more enjoyable. Try to memorize these top Windows 8 shortcut keys.

  1. Press the Windows key to open the Start screen or switch to the Desktop (if open).
  2. Press the Windows key + D opens the Windows Desktop.
  3. Press the Windows key + . to pin and unpin Windows apps on the side of the screen.
  4. Press the Windows key + X to open the power user menu, which gives you access to many of the features most power users would want (e.g. Device Manager and Command Prompt).
  5. Press the Windows key + C to open the Charms.
  6. Press the Windows key + I to open the Settings, which is the same Settings found in Charms.
  7. Press and hold the Windows key + Tab to show open apps.
  8. Press the Windows key + Print screen to create a screen shot, which is automatically saved into your My Pictures folder.

Know your hot corners

The corners on your screen are hot corners and give you access to different Windows features. Below, is a brief explanation of each of these corners.
Bottom Left-hand cornerThe bottom left-hand hot corner of the screen allows you to access the Start screen, if you're in the Start screen and have the Desktop open, this corner opens the Desktop from the Start screen.

Tip: Right-clicking in the left hand corner opens the power user menu.

Top-left corner of the screen

Moving the mouse to the top-left corner and then down displays all the apps running on the computer. Clicking and dragging any of these apps to the left or right-hand side of the screen will snap that app to that side of the screen. Each of these open app icons can also be right-clicked to close or snap.

Right-hand side of the screen

On the full right-hand side of the screen will be given access to the Windows Charms.
Taking advantage of search
The Search in Windows 8 has been significantly improved when compared to all previous versions of Windows. To search for a file or run a program in Windows 8 from the Start screen just start typing what you're trying to find or want to run.
As you begin typing, the results will start appearing on the left-hand side. In addition to being able to search for files and run programs, the Search also supports limiting the search to apps such as Finance, People, Maps, Photos, Mail, Music, Videos, Weather, and much more. If what you are searching for is not a file or program, click on the app you want to use as the search. For example, if you were searching for "New York" and selected the Weather App you would be shown the weather in New York, NY.
By default, Search organizes the available Apps by how frequently they are used and then in alphabetical order. If you want to keep your favorite app at the top of the Search list, right-click the app and choose Pin. Pinning the app will lock it in place regardless of how often it is used. If there is an app you don't want (e.g. Finance) you can turn on and off any of the search apps through the PC settings, which is found under the Settings in the Charms.

Bonus tip: The Search is also found through Charms and can also be opened by pressing Windows key + F.
Running two apps side by side

Any app can be pinned to the left or right-hand side of the screen. For example, open the People app and then press the Windows Key + . (period) to move that app to the right-hand side of the screen, pressing the same keys again will move it to the left-hand side, and pressing the same keys again makes it full screen. While an app is pinned, any other app or program can be opened and loaded into the available space on the screen. For example, in the picture below, we've opened a browser window and have the People app running to monitor our social networks.

Any open app can also be pinned using your mouse by clicking at the top of the tile and dragging it to the left or right-hand side of the screen.

Bonus tip: The Desktop can also be pinned to the left or right-hand side of the screen.

Note: In order for snap to work properly your resolution must be at least 1,366 x 768.

Windows 8 Task Manager

The Windows 8 Task Manager has been significantly improved over previous versions of Windows. Some of the new changes include showing a total percent usage at the top of your Processes, which makes it easier to determine total memory and CPU usage, improved Performance graphs, a Startup tab to see startup processes and their impact to system performance, and the App history tab (as shown below) that gives you the total resources an app has used over a period of time. Press Ctrl + Shift + Esc to start exploring the new Task Manager.

Use a picture password to log into your computer

Windows 8 includes a new feature called Picture password, which allows you to authenticate with the computer using a series of gestures that include circles, straight lines, and taps. Enable this feature if you want a new way to access your computer or have a hard time with passwords.
Open the Windows Charms.
Click Settings and then More PC settings
In the PC settings window click Users and then select Create a picture password

Bonus tip: A four digit pin password can also be created and used to access your computer.
Read more
How to Encrypt a Windows 8 PC Drive

Windows 8.1 Pro includes built-in drive encryption tools. These tools work even if you don't have a TPM chip. TPM, or Trusted Platform Module, is encryption-ready hardware. You'll need a spare USB thumb drive, though. Encryption tools are hidden away in the depths of the machine, so finding them can make you feel like an International Person of Mystery.

Real-life events -- the disclosures from website WikiLeaks; Edward Snowden's leaks of classified government documents to media outlets; credit card hijacks by the server load; and even Facebook's stumbles over its privacy policy explanation to the masses -- have created a general sense of unease when it comes to privacy these days, even at the consumer level.

We are all becoming increasingly aware that our digital lives are no longer private. Not only are they no longer private -- in reality, they likely never have been. It may be time to think about encryption.

There are some easy ways to encrypt email. There are also some methods for encrypting thumb and hard drives.

Windows 8.1 Pro, the version of Windows that Microsoft pitches on its website, includes built-in drive encryption tools. These tools work even if you don't have a TPM chip. TPM, or Trusted Platform Module, is encryption-ready hardware. You'll need a spare USB thumb drive, though.

Amusingly, encryption tools are hidden away in the depths of the machine, so finding them can make you feel like an International Person of Mystery.

Nevertheless, here's how to go about it:

Step 1

Verify that your machine is running Windows 8 Pro or Windows 8.1 Pro by launching the Control Panel. The Control Panel can be accessed from the new Windows 8-style Search Charm -- type "Control Panel" in the search box.

Click or touch System and Security, and then System. The Windows Edition will be listed.
Tip: Windows 8 Encryption is called "BitLocker." It's included in Windows 7 and Windows Vista Enterprise and Ultimate; it is also available in the Pro and Enterprise editions of Windows 8.

Step 2

Enter the term "gpedit.msc" in the search charm's text box. Then browse the hierarchical menu structure, moving from Open Computer Configuration to Administrative Templates to Windows Components to BitLocker Drive Encryption to Operating System Drives.
Then right-click on the third option, labeled "Require additional authentication at startup." Then check the Allow BitLocker without a compatible TPM check box. Click Apply and then OK.
Step 3
Enter the term "BitLocker" in the Windows Search Charm and then "Manage BitLocker." Or scroll down to BitLocker Drive Encryption from System in Control Panel.
Step 4
Turn on BitLocker.
Step 5
Insert a USB flash drive into the PC's USB jack and follow the prompts.
Tip: You can use a password instead of a USB drive. However, the USB drive method is more secure, because it's a physical factor -- you need to insert the actual thumb drive to access the PC. It's also more entertaining.
Step 6:
Create a Recovery Key by following the prompts to save a backed-up key to an external source -- like another PC on your network or a second USB drive -- or by printing it.Tip: A Recovery Key is a backup key.
Step 7
Choose how much of the drive you'd like to encrypt by selecting the appropriate radio button.Tip: Encrypt the entire drive if you're using an existing rather than new PC. It takes longer but will catch stray files.
Step 8
Select the Run BitLocker System Check check box. This will verify encryption keys.
Step 9
Restart the computer. The computer will restart, and the drive will start encrypting. The USB drive should be in the USB jack at this step. Allow the encryption to take place.
Step 10
Remove the USB drive and restart the PC to test. You'll be prompted to insert the USB drive key.
Sources: technewsworld
Read more
Thursday, June 26, 2014
no image

The bugs from our bodies end up on our smartphones
Smartphones reflect the personal microbial world of their owners, say US scientists.
More than 80% of the common bacteria that make up our personal bacterial "fingerprints" end up on their screens, a study suggests.
Personal possessions, such as phones, might be useful for tracking the spread of bacteria, they report in PeerJ.
They reflect our microbiome - the trillions of different micro-organisms that live in and on our bodies.
Mobile phone users have been found to touch their devices on average 150 times a day.
Scientists have found an overlap between the collection of micro-organisms naturally present on our bodies and those on the screens of smartphones.
They say this could one day be used to track people's exposure to bacteria.
In the study, biologists from the University of Oregon sequenced the DNA of microbes found on the index fingers and thumbs of 17 people.
They also took swabs of the subjects' smartphones.
A total of 7,000 different types of bacteria were found in 51 samples.


On average, 22% of bacterial families overlapped on fingers and phones.
Some 82% of the most common bacteria present on participants' fingers were also found on their phones.
They included three families that are commonly found on the skin or in the mouth - Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium.
Men and women both shared bacteria with their phones, but the connection was stronger in women.
Bacteria are naturally present on our skin and in our mouths
Lead researcher Dr James Meadow said while the sample size was small, the findings were "revealing".
"This project was a proof-of-concept to see if our favourite and most closely held possessions microbially resemble us," he said.
"We are ultimately interested in the possibility of using personal effects as a non-invasive way to monitor our health and our contact with the surrounding environment."
The researchers say there is no evidence that mobile phones present any more infection risk than any other possession.
But they say our phones might one day be used to study whether people have been exposed to certain bacteria, particularly healthcare workers.

Emotional connection

The study confirms that "we share more than an emotional connection with our phones - they carry our personal microbiome", Dr Meadow added.
There is increasing scientific interest in the human microbiome - the population of trillions of micro-organisms that live in our gut, mouth, skin and elsewhere on our bodies.
Bacteria can be harmful but they can also have beneficial effects, particularly in the gut, by digesting food and making essential nutrients and vitamins.
Source : BBC news
Read more
Scientists create new battery that's cheap, clean, rechargeable and organic

Scientists have developed a new rechargeable battery that is all organic and could be scaled up easily for use in power plants where it can make the energy grid more resilient and efficient by creating in a large-scale means to store energy for use as needed. The batteries could pave the way for renewable energy sources to makfe up a greater share of the nation's energy generation. 

USC professor Sri Narayan's research focuses on the fundamental and applied aspects of electrochemical energy conversion and storage to reduce the carbon footprint of energy use and by providing energy alternatives to fossil fuel, Wednesday, June 10, 2014 in Los Angeles.
Scientists at USC have developed a new water-based organic battery that is long lasting, built from cheap, eco-friendly components. The new battery  which uses no metals or toxic materials  is intended for use in power plants where it can make the energy grid more resilient and efficient by creating a large-scale means to store energy for use as needed.
"The batteries last for about 5,000 recharge cycles, giving them an estimated 15-year lifespan" said Sri Narayan, professor of chemistry at the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences and corresponding author of a paper describing the new batteries that was published online by the Journal of the Electrochemical Society on June 20. "Lithium ion batteries degrade after around 1,000 cycles, and cost 10 times more to manufacture."
Narayan collaborated with Surya Prakash, Prakash, professor of chemistry and director of the USC Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute, as well as USC's Bo Yang, Lena Hoober-Burkhardt, and Fang Wang.
"Such organic flow batteries will be game-changers for grid electrical energy storage in terms of simplicity, cost, reliability and sustainability," said Prakash.
The batteries could pave the way for renewable energy sources to make up a greater share of the nation's energy generation. Solar panels can only generate power when the sun's shining, and wind turbines can only generate power when the wind blows. That inherent unreliability makes it difficult for power companies to rely on them to meet customer demand.
With batteries to store surplus energy and then dole it out as needed, that sporadic unreliability could cease to be such an issue.
"'Mega-scale' energy storage is a critical problem in the future of the renewable energy, requiring inexpensive and eco-friendly solutions," Narayan said.
The new battery is based on a redox flow design -- similar in design to a fuel cell, with two tanks of electroactive materials dissolved in water. The solutions are pumped into a cell containing a membrane between the two fluids with electrodes on either side, releasing energy.
The design has the advantage of decoupling power from energy. The tanks of electroactive materials can be made as large as needed -- increasing total amount of energy the system can store -- or the central cell can be tweaked to release that energy faster or slower, altering the amount of power (energy released over time) that the system can generate.
The team's breakthrough centered around the electroactive materials. While previous battery designs have used metals or toxic chemicals, Narayan and Prakash wanted to find an organic compound that could be dissolved in water. Such a system would create a minimal impact on the environment, and would likely be cheap, they figured.
Through a combination of molecule design and trial-and-error, they found that certain naturally occurring quinones -- oxidized organic compounds -- fit the bill. Quinones are found in plants, fungi, bacteria, and some animals, and are involved in photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
"These are the types of molecules that nature uses for energy transfer," Narayan said.
Currently, the quinones needed for the batteries are manufactured from naturally occurring hydrocarbons. In the future, the potential exists to derive them from carbon dioxide, Narayan said.
The team has filed several patents in regards to design of the battery, and next plans to build a larger scale version.
Story Source: Chemistrydaily
Read more
Thursday, June 19, 2014
no image

Are you know how to work web address lets start to know. You have seen them everywhere even on some state license plates. But what does all those http’s and .com’s mean. Here is the website that I referenced for the following information: is a simplified explanation of what makes up a web address:
First of all, the official computer name for a web address is URLwhich stands for: Universal Resource Locator.

Here’s a sample URL:

http:// stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol and that basically tells the computer that we are looking to “Transfer” “Hyper Text” (a webpage) from the internet to your computer. When typing a web address into Internet Explorer you usually don’t even have to type the “http://” because the computer assumes it.

www stands for World Wide Web which is the body of software rules and protocols that make up what we know of as the internet. Just about every webpage you’ll ever view is a part of the world wide web.
crsd in this example stands for Council Rock School District and it is technically the “second level domain name”
org is a an example of a “top level domain name” “.org” is primarily used by Non-profits, “.edu” is commonly used by schools and universities, “.gov” is used by the government, and the now famous “.com” is primarily for commercial websites. Together could be described as the school district’s “domain name”
buildings/nj/ if you remember the old old days of DOS (before we had mice and folders on the screen) you might remember switching folder levels using the “/”. If you don’t remember its OK, but you should know that “/buildings/nj/” tells the computer to go to a folder labeled “nj” that is inside a folder labeled “buildings”.
index.html this is the actual file name of this webpage. More specifically, “index” is the name of the file and “.html” is the file extension which tells the computer what kind of file it is. “.html” stands for Hyper Text Markup Language which is the language most web pages are written in.
Read more
Wednesday, June 18, 2014
no image

The internet is big, really, really big, and if you want to use it effectively you have to be familiar with search engines. has become the search engine of choice for millions of internet users. There are others, and if the past is any guide, there will be a “better than Google” search engine some day. But for now Google seems to be the best. Part of the reason they are the best is that they keep developing new ways of looking at the internet. Below are a couple of additional features that Google offers that you might want to check out now and in the future as they continue to develop: Need a current event? Forget about the newspaper, use the internet like teenagers do to find stories that are only minutes old. Arguably the best image search engine in the world. Try finding a picture of something today. Looking to make a purchase. Shop and compare prices online first using Google Shopping. What to check the stock market, try this website for a quick overview. Looking for an up to date map or satellite photo, check out these amazingly easy to manipulate maps and photos. Google has their own video search engine. Find an educational video on the internet that you can play for your class Several years ago Google bought Youtube which has become the premier video sharing website on the internet. Another project that Google is working on is to create a more efficient way to search scholarly papers. This is a great way to jump into some literature. Check out a book online, read some passages and find out where you can buy a copy.
Read more
Brain imaging shows enhanced executive brain function in people with musical training

This image shows functional MRI imaging during mental task switching: Panels A and B shows brain activation in musically trained and untrained children, respectively. Panel C shows brain areas that are more active in musically trained than musically untrained children

Acontrolled study using functional MRI brain imaging reveals a possible biological link between early musical training and improved executive functioning in both children and adults, report researchers. The study uses functional MRI of brain areas associated with executive function, adjusting for socioeconomic factors.

Acontrolled study using functional MRI brain imaging reveals a possible biological link between early musical training and improved executive functioning in both children and adults, report researchers at Boston Children's Hospital. The study, appearing online June 17 in the journal PLOS ONE, uses functional MRI of brain areas associated with executive function, adjusting for socioeconomic factors.
Executive functions are the high-level cognitive processes that enable people to quickly process and retain information, regulate their behaviors, make good choices, solve problems, plan and adjust to changing mental demands.
"Since executive functioning is a strong predictor of academic achievement, even more than IQ, we think our findings have strong educational implications," says study senior investigator Nadine Gaab, PhD, of the Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience at Boston Children's. "While many schools are cutting music programs and spending more and more time on test preparation, our findings suggest that musical training may actually help to set up children for a better academic future."
While it's already clear that musical training relates to cognitive abilities, few previous studies have looked at its effects on executive functions specifically. Among these studies, results have been mixed and limited by a lack of objective brain measurements, examination of only a few aspects of executive function, lack of well-defined musical training and control groups, and inadequate adjustment for factors like socioeconomic status.
Gaab and colleagues compared 15 musically trained children, 9 to 12, with a control group of 12 untrained children of the same age. Musically trained children had to have played an instrument for at least two years in regular private music lessons. (On average, the children had played for 5.2 years and practiced 3.7 hours per week, starting at the age of 5.9.) The researchers similarly compared 15 adults who were active professional musicians with 15 non-musicians. Both control groups had no musical training beyond general school requirements.
Since family demographic factors can influence whether a child gets private music lessons, the researchers matched the musician/non-musician groups for parental education, job status (parental or their own) and family income. The groups, also matched for IQ, underwent a battery of cognitive tests, and the children also had functional MRI imaging (fMRI) of their brains during testing.
On cognitive testing, adult musicians and musically trained children showed enhanced performance on several aspects of executive functioning. On fMRI, the children with musical training showed enhanced activation of specific areas of the prefrontal cortex during a test that made them switch between mental tasks. These areas, the supplementary motor area, the pre-supplementary area and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, are known to be linked to executive function.
"Our results may also have implications for children and adults who are struggling with executive functioning, such as children with ADHD or [the] elderly," says Gaab. "Future studies have to determine whether music may be utilized as a therapeutic intervention tools for these children and adults."
The researchers note that children who study music may already have executive functioning abilities that somehow attract them to music and predispose them to stick with their lessons. To establish that musical training influences executive function, and not the other way around, they hope to perform additional studies that follow children over time, assigning them to musical training at random.
Credit: Source: sciencedaily
Read more
Man faces trial over 'revenge porn' website

The practice of posting explicit images of former lovers is on the rise around the world, experts say

There is enough evidence for a man accused of running a website showing thousands of images of naked women without their consent to be put on trial, a San Diego judge has ruled.

Kevin Bollaert is accused of running so-called revenge porn website UGotPosted and, a second site which offered to remove the images for about $300 (£176) each.
He faces identity theft charges as UGotPosted included victims' locations, names and links to Facebook profiles.
The 27-year-old has pleaded not guilty.
He is also charged with obtaining identifying information with the intent to annoy or harass.
The term revenge porn refers to websites that allow people to post explicit images of former partners, either obtained consensually or stolen from online accounts.
Read more
Saturday, June 14, 2014
Apple exchanges 'overheating' European USB power adapters

A European USB iPhone charger sold between October 2009 and September 2012 "may overheat and pose a safety risk", says manufacturer, Apple.
The US firm is offering to exchange the defective items free of charge.

In an advice note, the company urges those who own the adapter to stop using it, although it says the malfunction only occurs in "rare cases".

The model was sold in 37 countries, including some countries in Africa and Asia, but not in the UK.
Apple released an image explaining how to identify the adapter

The item was shipped with iPhone 3GS, 4 and 4S models, and was also sold as a separate accessory.

Its model number is A1300 and it features the letters "CE" in solid grey.

It was sold in the following countries:
Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Vietnam

This is not the first time Apple has exchanged USB adapters. In 2008, the company offered to exchange defective iPhone 3G chargers in the US, Japan, Canada and several Latin American countries.

Apple has also offered to replace counterfeit or third-party iPhone chargers sold to customers in China, amid concerns over safety.
This news is copy from BBC news
Read more
Thursday, June 12, 2014
Boiling point of propanic acid is much more higher than that of n-butyl alcohol

Carboxylic acids have higher b.p than alcohols having comparable molcular weight for e.g propanic acid have much higher b.p (141 degree celcius) than  n-butyl alcohol (118), although both of them have same molecular weight.
A pair of alcohol (n-butyl alcohol) molecule are held toghter by only one hydrogen bond but a pair of  carboxalic acid (propionic acid) molecular are held toghter not by one but by two hydrogen bonds. More the number of hydrogen bonds between the molecules, more heat should be supplied to break them and the substance. So, b.p of carboxylic acid is higher than that of alcohol of comparable molecular weight.
Read more
Tuesday, June 10, 2014
Computer AI passes Turing test in 'world first'

A computer program called Eugene Goostman, which simulates a 13-year-old Ukrainian boy, is said to have passed the Turing test at an event organised by the University of Reading.

The test investigates whether people can detect if they are talking to machines or humans.
The experiment is based on Alan Turing's question-and-answer gameCan Machines Think?
No computer has passed the test before under these conditions, it is reported.
The 65-year-old Turing Test is successfully passed if a computer is mistaken for a human more than 30% of the time during a series of five-minute keyboard conversations.
On 7 June Eugene convinced 33% of the judges at the Royal Society in London that it was human.
                                                               Man or machine? A glimpse at one of the conversations.

Other artificial intelligence (AI) systems also competed, including Cleverbot, Elbot and Ultra Hal.
Judges included actor Robert Llewellyn, who played an intelligent robot in BBC Two's science-fiction sitcom Red Dwarf, and Lord Sharkey, who led the successful campaign for Alan Turing's posthumous pardon, over a conviction for homosexual activity, in 2013.
Eugene was created by Vladimir Veselov, who was born in Russia and now lives in the United States, and Ukrainian-born Eugene Demchenko, who now lives in Russia.
Transcripts of the conversations are currently unavailable, but may appear in a future academic paper.
The judges and hidden human control groups were kept apart throughout the test.
The event was organised by Reading University's School of Systems Engineering in partnership with RoboLaw, an EU-funded organisation examining the regulation of emerging robotic technologies.
Alan Turing was an English mathematician, wartime code-breaker and pioneer of computer science.


The event has been labelled as "historic" by the organisers, who claim no computer has passed the test before.
"Some will claim that the Test has already been passed," said Kevin Warwick, a visiting professor at the University of Reading and deputy vice-chancellor for research at Coventry University.
"The words Turing test have been applied to similar competitions around the world. However, this event involved the most simultaneous comparison tests than ever before, was independently verified and, crucially, the conversations were unrestricted.
"A true Turing test does not set the questions or topics prior to the conversations. We are therefore proud to declare that Alan Turing's test was passed for the first time on Saturday."
Lord Sharkey, a leading expert in robotic technology and artificial intelligence, said: "It is indeed a great achievement for Eugene. It was very clever ruse to pretend to be a 13-year-old Ukranian boy, which would constrain the conversation. But these competitions are really great to push developments."
Sources: bbc technewa
Read more
Monday, June 9, 2014
no image

Everyone seems to agree that vitamin D is important for throughout our life. This is certainly as true in the first year of life as it is later on. For it is during the first year that in addition to its role in calcium metabolism, this critical nutrient reduces both the risk of current infections and the late-life development of such autoimmune diseases as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes.
Both the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) agree that vitamin D intake during the first year of life should be 400 IU/d. My own estimation of the requirement (for different ages and body sizes) is 65-75 IU/kg body weight per day. For average body weights in infants during the first year of life that rule of thumb computes to somewhere between 300 and 500 IU/d for infants. So, while there is still contention with respect to the optimal intake for adults, there really is no disagreement about how much is needed for infants, either among various authoritative sources or arising from different approaches to the evidence. With respect to infants, 400 IU/d seems to be just about right.
The question is, how is the infant to get that vitamin D? Human milk, in most nursing mothers, contains very little vitamin D. Infant formulas, from various manufacturers, all contain some added vitamin D in amounts calculated to be sufficient to meet an infant's needs. But extensive studies during the first year of life reveal that less than one-fifth of all infants ever get as much as the recommended 400 IU/d from any source, and fewer than one out of 10 breast-fed infants meet the requirement. As a result, the AAP urges that all infants, regardless of whether they are breast or formula fed, receive their 400 IU/d as pediatric drops. Unfortunately, this recommendation, while appropriate, is not often followed. Most babies are just not getting the vitamin D they need. The late-life consequences of this shortfall could be enormous.
It must seem strange that on the one hand we stress that human milk is the best source of nourishment for our babies, and on the other seem to ignore the fact that human milk doesn't contain the vitamin D those babies need. The explanation, very simply, is that the disconnect is artificial. Nursing mothers have so little vitamin D in their own bodies that there is little or none left over to put into their milk. But it has not always been this way. We know that the vitamin D blood concentrations that are regularly found today in Africans living ancestral lifestyles are high enough to support putting into breast milk all the vitamin D an infant needs. But the bulk of the world's population today is not living on the high equatorial plains of East Africa nor exposing much of its skin for most of the day.
Fortunately, we don't have to return to East Africa. It turns out that, if we give nursing mothers enough vitamin D to bring their blood levels up to the likely ancestral levels, then they automatically put all of the vitamin D their baby needs into their own milk, thereby ensuring that the infant gets total nutrition without the need to resort to vitamin D drops.
How much vitamin D does the mother need so as to ensure an adequate amount in her milk? As with everything else related to vitamin D, there is a lot of individual variation, but it appears that the daily intake must be in the range of 5,000-6,000 IUs. As no surprise, that's just about the amount needed to reproduce the vitamin D blood levels in persons living ancestral lifestyles today. And while 5,000-6,000 IU may initially seem high, it is important to remember how much the sun produces for us. A single 15 minute whole body exposure to sun at mid-day in summer produces well over 10,000 IU.
There is one important proviso for nursing mothers concerning the needed intake. Those who live in North America and have to rely on supplements should be certain that they take their supplements every day. While for other purposes it is possible to take vitamin D intermittently (e.g., once a week), that doesn't work for putting vitamin D into human milk. The residence time of vitamin D in the blood is so short that, if the mother stops taking her vitamin D supplement for a day or two, vitamin D in her milk will be low (or absent altogether) on the days she skips.
There is a glaring disconnect here between these well-attested physiological facts and the official IOM recommendation for nursing mothers, i.e., only 400 IU/d -- the same intake for her as IOM recommends for her baby (whose body weight is less than 10% of her own). The IOM, if it were to be explicit about its current recommendations, would be telling nursing mothers something like this:
"The evidence we analyzed indicates that your own body needs only 400 IU of vitamin D each day. Unfortunately, that won't allow you to put any vitamin D into your breast milk. Sorry about that . . . So, if you want to ensure that your baby is adequately nourished, you are going to have to resort to giving your infant vitamin D drops."
That would be a hard message to sell, and clearly, it makes little sense on its face. As I have already noted, women living ancestral lifestyles (whether or not they are nursing an infant) have far higher blood levels of vitamin D than contemporary urban Americans. Milk production (and its optimal composition) are simply two of the many functions that vitamin D supports in a healthy adult. This breast-feeding example is not a special case; it is just one of the many pieces of evidence that point to the fact that current vitamin D recommendations for adults are too low -- way too low.
Vitamin D supplements -- and in this case vitamin D drops -- are literal lifesavers for infants today. But what about two or three generations back -- before nutritional supplements come into existence, but long after migration out of Africa? Ninety years ago vitamin D had not yet been discovered, and there certainly were no vitamin D supplements that could have been used. How did we get by through those thousands of years? There are two answers. Most of us, living in temperate latitudes, got a lot more sun exposure than we do today, and of course there were no sunscreens, so there was no blocking of the solar radiation that produces vitamin D in our skin. Those of us living in far northern latitudes survived mostly by depending upon diets that were very high in seafood, which is naturally a rich source of vitamin D. And those of us who got vitamin D by neither route were at increased risk of a whole host of vitamin D-related disorders, most obvious and most easily recognized being rickets.
The bony deformities of rickets were common a century ago in Europe, North America, and East Asia, and were largely eradicated in growing children by use of cod liver oil and, in the US, by the introduction of vitamin D fortification of milk in the 1930s. Fortunately, growing children can repair some of the bone deformities of rickets if they are given vitamin D soon enough. But, repairing rickets, while a good and necessary thing to do, is not sufficient. It is too late, by the time we recognize the deformities of rickets, to ensure maximal protection against the autoimmune diseases (for example), for which susceptibility is mainly determined in the first year of life.
To sum up, we now better recognize the importance of vitamin D in the earliest stages of life. Furthermore, there is, as noted earlier, quite good agreement on how much an infant needs. Where we lack consensus is how to make certain that all of our babies get the amount they need. Why not rely on giving nursing infants vitamin D drops, as the AAP recommends? Two reasons: 1) It's been tried and has failed; and, 2) When it does work in individual infants, it provides no benefit for the mother. By contrast, ensuring an adequate vitamin D input to the mother during pregnancy and lactation is almost certainly the best way to meet the needs of both individuals.
An "adequate" intake for nursing mothers, as noted earlier, is not the 400 IU/d the IOM recommends, but is instead in the range of 5,000-6,000 IU/d, taken daily. If they get that much, they will meet not only their own needs, but their infant's as well. And they will have the satisfaction of knowing that they are supplying all their baby's needs, the natural way.
Read more
Sunday, June 8, 2014
no image

The mechanism by which a good night's sleep improves learning and memory has been discovered by scientists.

The team in China and the US used more advanced microscopy to witness new connections between our brain cells - synapses - forming during sleep.

Their study is published in the journal Science, showed  that even intense training could not make up for lost sleep.

Experts said it was an elegant and significant study, which uncovered the mechanisms of memory.

It is well known that sleep plays an important role in memory and learning. But what actually happens inside the brain has been a source of considerable debate.

Researchers at Newyork University School of Medicine and Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School trained mice in a new skill - walking on top of a rotating rod.

They then looked inside the living brain with a microscope to see what happened when the animals were either sleeping or sleep deprived.

Their study showed that sleeping mice formed significantly more new connections between neurons  they were learning more.

And by disrupting specific phases of sleep, the research group showed deep or slow-wave sleep was necessary for memory formation.

During this stage, the brain was "replaying" the activity from earlier in the day.

Prof Wen-Biao Gan, from New York University, told the BBC: "Finding out sleep promotes new connections between neurons is new, nobody knew this before.

"We thought sleep helped but it could have been other causes, and we show it really helps to make connections and that in sleep the brain is not quiet, it is replaying what happened during the day and it seems quite important for making the connections."
Read more
Saturday, June 7, 2014
Is Your Computer Male Or Female ?

Are you want to know gender type of your computer ? let's start to know This is funny trick that let you know the gender of your computer whether it is male or female. This trick work on mostly all windows operating system. So let get started.
First of all  
1. Open Notepad and paste the following codes.

CreateObject("SAPI.SpVoice").Speak"i love you"

2. Go to save as and Save the file as gender.vbs 
   3. Then Now, open the save file
   4. If you hear male voice then your computer is male and if you hear female voice then its female.
Read more
Werners Theory

In 1893, Alfred Werner developed a theory for complex compound. Werner was able to explain nature of bonding in complexes.
The important postulates of Werner coordination theory are as following.
  1. In Coordination compounds, the metal atom posses two types of valencies primary valancy and secondary valency.
Primary valancy corresponds to oxidation number of metal ion is reffed as ionizable valancy. Secondary valancy is ion and is referred valency Is ionisable valency. It also more or less fixed depending upon central metal atom. A number of ligand surrounds the central metal atom. A number of ligand surrounds the central metal atom i.e. coordination number corresponds to the secondary valancy of metal.

  1. Every metal atom or ion has more or less fixed number of coordination numbers.
  2. Ligand donates electron pair to the central metal atom. Ligands are commonly negative ion such  as Clor neutral molecule containing lone pairs of electron e.g NH3.
  3. Secondary valences are directional in nature so that complex ions have a fixed shaped depending upon the coordination number. For eg. if coordination number is six, the geometry of complex is octrahedral like [Co(NH3)6]3+.
The most common coordination number to transition metal complex is 6 and the shape is usually octrahedral. The coordination number 4 is also common, and give rise to either tetrahedral or square planer complex.
Read more
Friday, June 6, 2014
What is Buckminister fullerene ?

One of the most intresting development in late 20th century is the discovary of a new allotropic forms of carbonn, the fullerenc. It is the third form of pure crystaline form of the carbon after diamond and graphite. The new forms of carbon exist as C60 carbon cluster compound in the form of mustard coloured crystaline solid which dissolved in benzine to give magenta (Reddish purple) coloured solution. The molecule is of an extra ordinary structure consisting of C60 carbon atoms in a fused ring aromatic system which bends around and closer to form a "Soccer Ball" Shaped molecule with 20 six membred rings and 12 five membered rings and each carbon atom in it is sp2 hybridred and linked with three other carbon atom with one down and two single bond. It has been called Most Symmertical Molecule. The C60 molecule were first recognized and named as "Buckmiister fullerene" after the American architech enginear F.Buckminister (Bucky) Fuller. Who designed similar sheped down. More commenly, these molecules are now called fullerene and most informally "Bucky ball". This isomer of  carbon differ from diamond and graphite that diamond and graphite form lattice but fullerenes form discrete molecules.

Read more