PHYSICS

Physics, major science, dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces. Sometimes in modern physics a more sophisticated approach is taken that incorporates elements of the three areas it relates to the laws of symmetry and conservation, such as those pertaining to energy, momentum, charge, and parity. It is also related in chemistry,Biology .Physics is also closely related to the other natural sciences and, in a sense, encompasses them. Chemistry, for example, deals with the interaction of atoms to form molecules. Physics covers a wide range of fields. This below table provides a brief description of topics covered in the major areas of study.


Major Fields in Physics



Astronomy Properties of space; origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planetary systems; origin and evolution of the universe. Includes astrophysics and cosmology.

Atomic Physics Structure and properties of atoms.

Cryogenics Properties and behavior of matter at extremely low temperatures.

Electromagnetism Electric and magnetic force fields; behavior of electrically charged particles in electromagnetic fields; propagation of electromagnetic waves. Also known as electrodynamics.

Elementary Particle

Physics Properties of elementary particles such as electons, photons, etc. Also known as high energy physics.

Fluid Dynamics Properties and behavior of moving fluids and gases.

Geophysics Application of physics to the study of the earth. Includes atmospheric physics, meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, geomagnetism, seismology, and volcanology.

Mathematical Physics Application of mathematical techniques to problems in physics.

Mechanics Forces, interactions, and motions of material objects.

Molecular Physics Structure and properties of molecules.

Nuclear Physics Structure, properties, reactions, and evolution of atomic nuclei.

Optics Propagation of light, electromagnetic waves.

Plasma Physics Behavior of ionized (electrically charged) gases.

Quantum Physics Quantum nature of matter, energy, and light. Behavior of systems composed of small numbers of elementary particles.

Solid State Physics Physical properties of solid materials. Includes crystallography, semiconductors, superconductivity. Also known as condensed matter physics.

Statistical Mechanics Application of statistical methods to model the behavior of systems composed of many particles.

Thermodynamics Temperature and energy; heat flow; transformation of energy; phases of matter (solid, liquid, gas, plasma).

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