ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Organic Chemistry is the branch of chemistry in which deals with the study of carbon compounds and their deravitives reactions. A wide variety of classes of substances—such as drugs, vitamins, plastics, natural and synthetic fibers, as well as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats—consist of organic molecules. Organic chemists determine the structures of organic molecules, study their various reactions, and develop procedures for the synthesis of organic compounds. Organic chemistry has had a profound effect on modern life: It has improved natural materials and it has synthesized natural and artificial materials that have, in turn, improved health, increased comfort, and added to the convenience of nearly every product manufactured today.

The advent of organic chemistry is often associated with the discovery in 1828 by the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler that the inorganic, or mineral, substance called ammonium cyanate could be converted in the laboratory to urea, an organic substance found in the urine of many animals. Before this discovery, chemists thought that intervention by a so-called life force was necessary for the synthesis of organic substances. Wöhler's experiment broke down the barrier between inorganic and organic substances. Modern chemists consider organic compounds to be those containing carbon and one or more other elements, most often hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, or the halogens, but sometimes others as well

Sourses of organic chemistry
Coal tar was once the only source of aromatic and some heterocyclic compounds. Petroleum was the source of aliphatic compounds that contain such substances as gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oil. Natural gas supplied methane and ethane. These three categories of natural substances are still the major sources of organic compounds for most countries. When petroleum is not available, however, a chemical industry can be based on acetylene, which in turn can be synthesized from limestone and coal. During World War II, Germany was forced into just that position when it was cut off from reliable petroleum and natural-gas sources.Table sugar from cane or beets is the most abundant pure chemical from a plant source. Other major substances derived from plants include carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose, alkaloids, caffeine, and amino acids. Animals feed on plants and other animals to synthesize amino acids, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

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