CHEMISTRY

The  study of the composition, structure, properties, and interactions of matter. Chemistry is also called the central science, because its interests lie between those of physics (which focuses on single substances) and biology (which focuses on complicated life processes). Chemists have divided chemistry into a number of different branches. These branches are somewhat arbitrary and do not have sharply defined boundaries. They often overlap with each other or with other sciences, such as physics, geology, or biology. Chemistry has many branches some of them flowing are main branches


Inorganic chemistry is the study of the chemical nature of the elements and their compounds (except hydrocarbons—compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen).

Organic chemistry is the study of compounds consisting largely of hydrocarbons, which provide the parent material of all other organic compounds. Since carbon atoms can form rings and long branched chains, hundreds of thousands of carbon-based molecules exist. Organic compounds are of special importance, because they make up the majority of compounds in living organisms. Organic compounds form coal and petroleum. Organic chemists have learned how to convert raw materials from coal, petroleum, and grain into synthetic textiles, pesticides, dyes, drugs, plastics, and many other products.

Physical chemistry is fundamental to all chemistry and deals with the application of physical laws to chemical systems and chemical change. Much of physical chemistry is concerned with the role of energy in chemical reactions; this branch of physical chemistry is known as thermodynamics. Other major areas of study in physical chemistry are the rates and mechanisms of reactions, called chemical kinetics. A third area of physical chemistry studies molecular structure. Physical chemists study molecular structure by examining the spectrum of electromagnetic energy emitted by molecules and explain structure using principles of quantum mechanics

Biochemistry is the chemistry of living organisms and life processes. Even the simplest living thing is a complex chemical factory. Biochemists must have a detailed knowledge of organic chemistry. In some aspects of biochemistry, advanced physical chemistry is used, and biophysics and molecular biology are companion sciences.

Geochemistry is the application of chemistry (and, inevitably, physics) to processes taking place in the earth, such as mineral formation, the metamorphosis of rocks, and the formation and migration of petroleum.

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